Thursday, January 30, 2020
Egypt and Mesopotamia Comparison Essay Egypt and Mesopotamia not only differed in their trade and culture, but also in their politics and form of government. Despite the differences though, one is able to notice several similarities between the two civilizations. First of all, Mesopotamia was ruled by kings and queens and nobles could usually attain power as they attained a higher economic status. In Egypt, it was the pharaohs who the authoritive power. In Mesopotamia, the state also had supreme power in the economy and agricultural affairs. Pharaohs were the supreme judges and law makers, as were kings in Mesopotamia. They did have advisors and religion influenced their policies, for example, religion in Egypt is the bureaucracy and actions as did in Mesopotamian civilizations. An example of how morals had an influence in the Mesopotamian laws and policies is Mesopotamian king HammurabiÃ¢â¬â¢s Codes Laws on family relationships. In these codes relied heavily on the principle of lex talionis, or Ã¢â¬Å"the law of retaliationÃ¢â¬ basically meaning an eye for an eye. Egyptian law was based on truth, order, balance and justice in the universe. This concept allowed that everyone, with the exception of slaves, should be viewed as equals under the law. One can notice, however, that when Egyptians carried out punishment in their people, they would be relatively unfair. Both civilizations had politics centered around cities or populated areas. This is true because areas or centers that were more populated were more likely to support differences in ideologies, so there would tend to be more conflicts requiring a higher authorative power. The people of these two civilizations were pretty loyal to the policies, especially when they considered the consequences that they would face if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. For pharaohs in Egypt, their successors were usually their offspring and they carried the empire. In many Mesopotamians though, the kings that ruled didnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily have to be relatives of the previous kings, though they did take the ways of ruling of the previous kings to learn from them and make sure to be more efficient, as did the pharaohs.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Measure For Measure on the Stage Near the end of his well known treatment of transgression and surveillance in Measure for Measure, Jonathan Dollimore makes an observation about the world of the play that deserves further consideration by feminist scholars: the prostitutes, the most exploited group in the society which the play represents, are absent from it. Virtually everything that happens presupposes them yet they have no voice, no presence. And those who speak for them do so as exploitatively as those who want to eliminate them. (85-86) Although Dollimore's comment about the absence of the prostitutes holds true for the written text of the play, twentieth century theatrical productions of Measure for Measure have largely tended to fill this void by granting the prostitutes a concrete physical presence on the stage. It might be argued that, by giving this neglected and exploited female population a theatrical incarnation, a performance of the play draws attention to the plight of these women and thereby accomplishes some aspects of a feminist agenda. However, a detailed review of the recent Anglo-American stage history of Measure for Measure reveals that the specific way in which prostitutes are embodied and employed in a given production determines the extent to which the production constitutes a feminist appropriation of the text. The treatment of prostitution in performances of Measure for Measure usually falls into one of three categories, which I will refer to as the conventional, lascivious, and adverse portrayals. A conventional presentation depicts the prostitutes as a generally ragged, vulgar, but appealing crew, the routine comic tarts of theatrical tradition, long-suffering but relatively untroubled in their lives of sexual debauchery. By contrast, a lascivious portrayal features an exhibition of the bodies of the prostitutes, offering the spectacle of their seductive sexuality for the consumption of audience members. Finally, an adverse treatment emphasizes the degrading and brutal aspects of the sex trade in an attempt to foreground the exploitation of women (and sometimes children) reduced to the bartering of their bodies by economic necessity. This adverse portrayal most nearly approaches a feminist appropriation of Measure for Measure, but it also tends to sacrifice the comic tone of the play's u nderworld. Can a feminist appropriation of Measure for Measure highlight the demeaning quality of prostitution without forfeiting the option of a comic interpretation of the lowlife of Vienna? This paper will address this question by concluding with a study of one particular production directed by a feminist, Joan Robbins of the University of Scranton, and her employment of prostitutes on stage at several key moments in the play's action.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Procurement Category: Energy WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Wrong with Traditional Energy Management? Start Realizing Untapped Savings Opportunities and Tame Volatile Energy Costs Traditional Energy Management Approaches are Falling ShortÃ¢â¬â How to Fix the Problem Energy utility costsÃ¢â¬âprimarily natural gas and electricityÃ¢â¬âaccount for one to two percent of sales for the average business, and can be as much as four to five percent of cost of goods sold for manufacturers. With energy prices turning volatile, corporate management teams are exposed to the risk of unanticipated movements in energy costs. They are feeling relatively helpless because of the perceived inability to proactively manage regulated energy costs. At the same time, firms are publicly committing to sustainability goals and are now wondering how they will achieve them. Although many firms have implemented short-term measures to address energy costs and sustainability commitments, these efforts are falling short. Our benchmark data and research i ndicates that for most firms, 50 percent of their initial energy savings disappear within the first six to 12 months due to a lack of continuous monitoring, analysis and corrective action. However, significant opportunity to deliver value remains. Analysis from the U.S. Department of Energy indicates firms that embrace continuous monitoring and active energy management practices can achieve 15 to 40 percent energy savings. Conduct an energy audit: To establish an energy consumption baselineÃ¢â¬âa basic requirement for successful energy cost optimizationÃ¢â¬â firms deploy monitoring devices to measure energy usage from the facility level down to the machine level. Implement audit recommendations: After assessing energy consumption levels and trends down to the machine level, managers can implement process changes to optimize energy consumption. Actions may range from policy formulation (shutting down computers at night, turning off idle equipment, etc.) to automation (automatically turning off lights) to equipment optimization (changing set-points on heavy machinery and equipment). Invest in high-efficiency equipment: With a full view of the energy consumption and equipment efficiency profile of the enterprise, firms can strategically invest in high-efficiency equipment. These capital upgrades can lower energy consumption and may also qualify for rebates and incentives that can significantly enhance potential return on investment (ROI). Figure 1: This paper looks at why traditional approaches are failing, and outlines an active energy management approach that changes the game and generates sustainable energy cost reductions. Typical Monitoring Savings Typical energy management strategiesÃ¢â¬âand why they fail to deliver sustainable value. For example, when firms conduct energy audits, employees and equipment operators are aware that their energy usage is being monitored and they make changes to reduce consumption, such as turning off idle equipment. But when monitors are removed, initial savings peak and then slowly erode as employee behavior returns to normal. Similarly, when firms implement process changes, substantial initial savings accrue. However, when the monitors come off, gains decline as equipment schedules change. Operators go back to the old way of doing things and set-points revert to old levels. In addition, without detailed machine-level consumption data as a baseline (as opposed to a point-in-time snapshot), analysts are unable to come up with truly optimal process improvements because the data is not granular enough. Finally, with capital equipment upgrades, savings targets are seldom realized due to unrealistic operating assumptions used to build ROI cases and most firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ lack of market intelligence about the complex array of incentives and rebates. 50% Savings A review of more than 100 companies and their practices reveal that most firms take three common actions to address the energy management challenge: Although these traditional energy management techniques can yield quick-hit results, there is a common pitfall: when the meters come off, it is back to business as usual and the savings disappear. Ã¢â¬Å"50 percent of initial energy savings disappear within the first six to 12 months due to a lack of continuous monitoring, analysis and corrective actionÃ¢â¬ Months from start 2 A four-step Active Energy Management approach Recognizing where most initiatives fall short, an integrated, four-part Active Energy Management strategy can stop the bleeding and address traditional energy management shortcomings: There are several keys to making energy savings persistent. First, take monitoring and measurement from a one-time analysis to an ongoing, active competency. Leading firms use 24Ãâ"7 advanced metering and monitoring technology with skilled analysts to proactively monitor energy consumption data and patterns. Continuous monitoring helps mitigate the savings leakage described earlier. Active monitoring allows managers to seeÃ¢â¬âin near realtimeÃ¢â¬âif employee behavior is beginning to change or old habits are starting to return, and identify the root causes when actual energy consumption differs from projections. In addition to preventing savings leakage, active monitoring helps identify new, incremental energy savings opportunitie s, raising the cumulative savings realized. Copyright Ã © 2014 Accenture All rights reserved. Go deeper: Use machine-level consumption data to drive sustainable process optimization. With a detailed understanding of energy consumption down to the individual equipment level, managers can implement detailed process optimization programs, such as changing set-points for heavy machinery. For example, an air compressor energy consumption study (see figure 2) revealed an opportunity to adjust the operating mode from continuous to throttled, resulting in 7 percent energy savings verified by ongoing measurement. In another example, adjusting improper temperature set-points in a chiller plant based on thorough analysis of usage data resulted in 30 percent energy savings. With the right intelligence and detailed monitoring, energy analysts can assess performance and immediately stop energy savings leakage. Analysts also can spot potential maintenance issues and proactively investigate when machinelevel performance deviates from expectations. Figure 2: 250 Baseline Model Target Model Baseline Data Actual Data 200 Air Compressor (kw) Get persistent: Apply Ã¢â¬Å"Active Energy ManagementÃ¢â¬ and take monitoring from a onetime activity to an active, ongoing analytical competency. 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 Air Demand (SCFM) based on Actual Production 100 3 Leverage insight: Use energy demand insight to enhance capital investment decisions and capture incentives and rebates to drive higher ROI. A comprehensive understanding of the consumption profile of the existing asset base enables much better capital investment decisions. Armed with detailed data and realistic energy consumption estimates, managers can rationally weigh the benefits of energy-efficient new equipment versus their purchase costs and other related expenses (decommissioning and disposal cost, production downtime, etc.). Beyond energy data, deep market intelligence of credits, incentives, and local, state and federal rebates can dramatically alter the ROI pr ofile of new capital investments. The opportunities are substantial: In 2011 alone, governments, nongovernmental organizations and utilities distributed more than $6.8 billion in cash payments to promote energy efficiency initiatives. Tackle the supply side: Extend Active Energy Management to integrated energy supply and demand management to drive the next level of savings. As this paper describes, current energy management practices are not delivering on their promises. The short-term benefits of energy audits and near-term recommendations quickly fade without continuous monitoring. On the other hand, Active Energy Management, which includes continuous monitoring and analysis, prevents the traditional savings leakage seen in most energy management programs. It also provides the data and insight that analysts and managers need to identify new savings opportunities and drive continuous improvement and cumulative energy savings benefits. With an established platform of ongoing measurement and management, firms can take energy savings to the next level. Detailed understanding of historical and planned consumption allows for acceleration of supply side strategies. For example, in deregulated markets, the accuracy with which a firm can predict its energy usage determines its ability to secure favorable energy rates by minimizing bandwidth charges. Energy consumers can also capture other savings through techniques like load shifting (shifting usage into lower-rate time periods) and peak shaving. Finally, in regulated markets, contrary to popular belief, firms can optimize their energy expenditures by taking advantage of the various rate structures available to purchasers and being aware of which available rates may be applicable to them. Conclusion Energy and utilities represent a significant and highly volatile area of expenditure for most businesses. However, traditional energy management approaches frequently fail to deliver sustainable results. Many managers consider high energy spend as an area that cannot be addressed due to market regulations and commodity volatility. However, with continuous monitoring and Active Energy Management programs, leading firms can obtain substantial energy cost savings through better energy demand management, sustain those savings through ongoing monitoring and optimize energy purchases with deep market intelligence.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The Inclusion of Inclusive Education in Teacher-Training: Issues of Curriculum, Pedagogy and Staffing Introduction UNESCO has defined inclusive education as the opening up of Ã¢â¬Ëschools, centre of learning and educational systemsÃ¢â¬ ¦to ALL children. For this to happen, teachers, schools and systems may need to change so they can better accommodate the diversity of needs that pupils have and (ensure) that they (the pupils) are included in all aspects of school life. It also means a process of identifying any barriers within and round the school that hinder learning, and reducing or removing these barriers. Inclusive Education is therefore a process, a product and a philosophy Ã¢â¬â a growing body of approaches, strategies and methods, aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In terms of attitudes, they need to possess the professionalism without which they will be unable to respond appropriately to diversity. In terms of values, they need to respect and uphold the rights of every child to a high quality education. This knowledge and these skills, attitudes and values are inter-dependent. For instance, if teachers do not have the right values, they will have negative attitudes towards their students. If they have negative attitudes, they will be unable and unwilling to teach inclusively. They will also be unable and unwilling to learn about inclusive education. Conversely, if they have positive values they have the potential to become inclusive teachers. 3. Curriculum and the Teaching of Inclusive Education in TTIs What form would a curriculum take that supported the above outcomes? In terms of knowledge, students need to be aware of the different forms of diversity to be found among children. These include: gender difference; linguistic, cultural and ethnic diversity; social-emotional diversity; cognitive and academic diversity; and sensory and physical diversity. They need to be aware of the complexity of these diversities. Many of these diversities are inter-connected: for instance, it has been argued that girls tend to learn differently from boys, that they have different Ã¢â¬Ëlearning stylesÃ¢â¬â¢, and teachers need to adapt their teaching styles to cater for this (Grossman 2004, pp.209-210). Thus, genderShow MoreRelatedThe View Of Best Practice For Educating And Caring For People With Disability2561 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesOver time, the view of best practice for educating and caring for people with disability has changed to one of inclusion in all aspects of life in society. In Australia, there was some resistance initially, fear and misunderstanding guided the decision making processes which meant those with disability were kept apart longer than in some other countries (Heward, 2009). Gradually, legislative changes, influenced by medical knowledge and researched based practice meant that people were no longer allowedRead MoreEssay on Case Study3465 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Faculty of Education EDC2400 Assignment 2 Case Study Choose one case study and write an academic essay. PART A = Identify the educational needs of the class/training group. Use these educational needs as the basis (headings) for outlining classroom practice, including strategies, in order to accommodate the diverse learning needs of the entire class/training group. Strategies are to be of a detailed, practical and realistic nature. PART B = Name the Education Queensland (or relevantRead MoreEssay on Creativity in Education9422 Words Ã |Ã 38 PagesCreativity in the curriculum A school with creativity at the heart of the learning process will benefit by increasing the motivation of staff and pupils, says former head, Dave Weston. In this article and case study, he shows the way to more imaginative approaches to curriculum planning Ã¢â¬ËCreativity is the defeat of habit by originalityÃ¢â¬â¢ Arthur Koestler Many school leaders and teachers realise that is now time to take more control over the curriculum and to include a greater emphasis on creativity